Influence of stationary phase and eluent properties on chromatographic separation of carbohydrates
Tiihonen, Jari (2002-12-13)
Acta Universitatis LappeenrantaensisURN:ISSN:1456-4491
Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on
In this thesis, the sorption and elastic properties of the cation-exchange resins were studied to explain the liquid chromatographic separation of carbohydrates. Na+, Ca2+ and La3+ form strong poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (SCE) as well as Na+ and Ca2+ form weak acrylic (WCE) cation-exchange resins at different cross-link densities were treated within this work. The focus was on the effects of water-alcohol mixtures, mostly aqueous ethanol, and that of the carbohydrates. The carbohydrates examined were rhamnose, xylose, glucose, fructose, arabinose, sucrose, xylitol and sorbitol. In addition to linear chromatographic conditions, non-linear conditions more typical for industrial applications were studied. Both experimental and modeling aspectswere covered. The aqueous alcohol sorption on the cation-exchangers were experimentally determined and theoretically calculated. The sorption model includes elastic parameters, which were obtained from sorption data combined with elasticity measurements. As hydrophilic materials cation-exchangers are water selective and shrink when an organic solvent is added. At a certain deswelling degree the elastic resins go through glass transition and become as glass-like material. Theincreasing cross-link level and the valence of the counterion decrease the sorption of solvent components in the water-rich solutions. The cross-linkage or thecounterions have less effect on the water selectivity than the resin type or the used alcohol. The amount of water sorbed is higher in the WCE resin and, moreover, the WCE resin is more water selective than the corresponding SCE resin. Theincreased aliphatic part of lower alcohols tend to increase the water selectivity, i.e. the resins are more water selective in 2-propanol than in ethanol solutions. Both the sorption behavior of carbohydrates and the sorption differences between carbohydrates are considerably affected by the eluent composition and theresin characteristics. The carbohydrate sorption was experimentally examined and modeled. In all cases, sorption and moreover the separation of carbohydrates are dominated by three phenomena: partition, ligand exchange and size exclusion. The sorption of hydrophilic carbohydrates increases when alcohol is added into the eluent or when carbohydrate is able to form coordination complexes with the counterions, especially with multivalent counterions. Decreasing polarity of the eluent enhances the complex stability. Size exclusion effect is more prominent when the resin becomes tighter or carbohydrate size increases. On the other hand,the elution volumes between different sized carbohydrates decreases with the decreasing polarity of the eluent. The chromatographic separation of carbohydrateswas modeled, using rhamnose and xylose as target molecules. The thermodynamic sorption model was successfully implemented in the rate-based column model. The experimental chromatographic data were fitted by using only one adjustable parameter. In addition to the fitted data also simulated data were generated and utilized in explaining the effect of the eluent composition and of the resin characteristics on the carbohydrate separation.
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