Choice of Optimal MembraneProcesses for Economical Treatment of Paper Machine Clear Filtrate
Nuortila-Jokinen, Jutta (1997)
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LTKK Tieteellisiä julkaisuja - Research papersURN:ISSN:0356-8210
In this thesis membrane filtration of paper machnie clear filtrate was studied. The aim of the study was to find membrane processes which are able to produce economically water of sufficient purity from paper machine white water or its saveall clarified fractions for reuse in the paper machnie short circulation. Factors affecting membrane fouling in this application were also studied. The thesis gives an overview af experiments done on a laboratory and a pilot scale with several different membranes and membrane modules. The results were judged by the obtained flux, the fouling tendency and the permeate quality assessed with various chemical analyses. It was shown that membrane modules which used a turbulence promotor of some kind gave the highest fluexes. However, the results showed that the greater the reduction in the concentration polarisation layer caused by increased turbulence in the module, the smaller the reductions in measured substances. Out of the micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration membranes tested, only nanofiltration memebranes produced permeate whose quality was very close to that of the chemically treated raw water used as fresh water in most paper mills today and which should thus be well suited for reuse as shower water both in the wire and press section. It was also shown that a one stage nanofiltration process was more effective than processes in which micro- or ultrafiltration was used as pretreatment for nanofiltration. It was generally observed that acidic pH, high organic matter content, the presence of multivalent ions, hydrophobic membrane material and high membrane cutoff increased the fouling tendency of the membranes.
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