Ion-exchange resins as stationary phase in reactive chromatography
Sainio, Tuomo (2005)
Aineistoon ei liity tiedostoja.
Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis
Dynamic behavior of bothisothermal and non-isothermal single-column chromatographic reactors with an ion-exchange resin as the stationary phase was investigated. The reactor performance was interpreted by using results obtained when studying the effect of the resin properties on the equilibrium and kinetic phenomena occurring simultaneously in the reactor. Mathematical models were derived for each phenomenon and combined to simulate the chromatographic reactor. The phenomena studied includes phase equilibria in multicomponent liquid mixture¿ion-exchange resin systems, chemicalequilibrium in the presence of a resin catalyst, diffusion of liquids in gel-type and macroporous resins, and chemical reaction kinetics. Above all, attention was paid to the swelling behavior of the resins and how it affects the kinetic phenomena. Several poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) resins with different cross-link densities and internal porosities were used. Esterification of acetic acid with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate and water was used as a model reaction system. Choosing an ion-exchange resin with a low cross-link density is beneficial inthe case of the present reaction system: the amount of ethyl acetate as well the ethyl acetate to water mole ratio in the effluent stream increase with decreasing cross-link density. The enhanced performance of the reactor is mainly attributed to increasing reaction rate, which in turn originates from the phase equilibrium behavior of the system. Also mass transfer considerations favor the use ofresins with low cross-link density. The diffusion coefficients of liquids in the gel-type ion-exchange resins were found to fall rapidly when the extent of swelling became low. Glass transition of the polymer was not found to significantlyretard the diffusion in sulfonated PS¿DVB ion-exchange resins. It was also shown that non-isothermal operation of a chromatographic reactor could be used to significantly enhance the reactor performance. In the case of the exothermic modelreaction system and a near-adiabatic column, a positive thermal wave (higher temperature than in the initial state) was found to travel together with the reactive front. This further increased the conversion of the reactants. Diffusion-induced volume changes of the ion-exchange resins were studied in a flow-through cell. It was shown that describing the swelling and shrinking kinetics of the particles calls for a mass transfer model that explicitly includes the limited expansibility of the polymer network. A good description of the process was obtained by combining the generalized Maxwell-Stefan approach and an activity model that was derived from the thermodynamics of polymer solutions and gels. The swelling pressure in the resin phase was evaluated by using a non-Gaussian expression forthe polymer chain length distribution. Dimensional changes of the resin particles necessitate the use of non-standard mathematical tools for dynamic simulations. A transformed coordinate system, where the mass of the polymer was used as a spatial variable, was applied when simulating the chromatographic reactor columns as well as the swelling and shrinking kinetics of the resin particles. Shrinking of the particles in a column leads to formation of dead volume on top of the resin bed. In ordinary Eulerian coordinates, this results in a moving discontinuity that in turn causes numerical difficulties in the solution of the PDE system. The motion of the discontinuity was eliminated by spanning two calculation grids in the column that overlapped at the top of the resin bed. The reactive and non-reactive phase equilibrium data were correlated with a model derived from thethermodynamics of polymer solution and gels. The thermodynamic approach used inthis work is best suited at high degrees of swelling because the polymer matrixmay be in the glassy state when the extent of swelling is low.
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