Fractionation of wood hydrolysate by ultrafiltration membranes at high temperature
Njoroge, Hannah Mwihaki (2008)
Aineistoon ei liity tiedostoja.
Njoroge, Hannah Mwihaki
Ultrafiltration (UF) is already used in pulp and paper industry and its demand is growing because of the required reduction of raw water intake and the separation of useful compounds from process waters. In the pulp and paper industry membranes might be exposed to extreme conditions and, therefore, it is important that the membrane can withstand them. In this study, extractives, hemicelluloses and lignin type compounds were separated from wood hydrolysate in order to be able to utilise the hemicelluloses in the production of biofuel. The performance of different polymeric membranes at different temperatures was studied. Samples were analysed for total organic compounds (TOC), lignin compounds (UV absorption at 280 nm) and sugar. Turbidity, conductivity and pH were also measured. The degree of fouling of the membranes was monitored by measuring the pure water flux before and comparing it with the pure water flux after the filtration of hydrolysate. According to the results, the retention of turbidity was observed to be higher at lower temperature compared to when the filtrations were operated at high temperature (70 °C). Permeate flux increased with elevated process temperature. There was no detrimental effect of temperature on most of the membranes used. Microdyn-Nadir regenerated cellulose membranes (RC) and GE-Osmonics thin film membranes seemed to be applicable in the chosen process conditions. The Polyethersulphone (NF-PES-10 and UH004P) and polysulphone (MPS-36) membranes used were highly fouled, but they showed high retentions for different compounds.