## Multilevel converter modulation: implementation and analysis

##### Naumanen, Ville (2010-06-07)

Väitöskirja

Naumanen, Ville

07.06.2010

Lappeenranta University of Technology

Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis

**Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on**

http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-214-934-3

#### Tiivistelmä

Multilevel converters provide an attractive solution to bring the benefits of speed-controlled rotational movement to high-power applications. Therefore, multilevel inverters have attracted wide interest in both the academic community and in the industry for the past two decades.

In this doctoral thesis, modulation methods suitable especially for series connected H-bridge multilevel inverters are discussed. A concept of duty cycle modulation is presented and its modification is proposed. These methods are compared with other well-known modulation schemes, such as space-vector pulse width modulation and carrier-based modulation schemes. The advantage of the modified duty-cycle modulation is its algorithmic simplicity. A similar mathematical formulation for the original duty cycle modulation is proposed. The modified duty cycle modulation is shown to produce well-formed phase-to-neutral voltages that have lower total harmonic distortion than the space-vector pulse width modulation and the duty cycle modulation. The space-vector-based solution and the duty cycle modulation, on the other hand, result in a better-quality line-to-line voltage and current waveform.

The voltage of the DC links in the modules of the series-connected H-bridge inverter are shown to fluctuate while they are under load. The fluctuation causes inaccuracies in the voltage production, which may result in a failure of the flux estimator in the controller. An extension for upper-level modulation schemes, which changes the switching instants of the inverter so that the output voltage meets the reference voltage accurately regardless of the DC link voltages, is proposed. The method is shown to reduce the error to a very low level when a sufficient switching frequency is used.

An appropriate way to organize the switching instants of the multilevel inverter is to make only one-level steps at a time. This causes restrictions on the dynamical features of the modulation schemes. The produced voltage vector cannot be rotated several tens of degrees in a single switching period without violating the above-mentioned one-level-step rule. The dynamical capabilities of multilevel inverters are analyzed in this doctoral thesis, and it is shown that the multilevel inverters are capable of operating even in dynamically demanding metal industry applications.

In addition to the discussion on modulation schemes, an overvoltage in multilevel converter drives caused by cable reflection is addressed. The voltage reflection phenomenon in drives with long feeder cables causes premature insulation deterioration and also affects the commonmode voltage, which is one of the main reasons for bearing currents. Bearing currents, on the other hand, cause fluting in the bearings, which results in premature bearing failure. The reflection phenomenon is traditionally prevented by filtering, but in this thesis, a modulationbased filterless method to mitigate the overvoltage in multilevel drives is proposed. Moreover, the mitigation method can be implemented as an extension for upper-level modulation schemes. The method exploits the oscillations caused by two consecutive voltage edges so that the sum of the oscillations results in a mitigated peak of the overvoltage. The applicability of the method is verified by simulations together with experiments with a full-scale prototype.

In this doctoral thesis, modulation methods suitable especially for series connected H-bridge multilevel inverters are discussed. A concept of duty cycle modulation is presented and its modification is proposed. These methods are compared with other well-known modulation schemes, such as space-vector pulse width modulation and carrier-based modulation schemes. The advantage of the modified duty-cycle modulation is its algorithmic simplicity. A similar mathematical formulation for the original duty cycle modulation is proposed. The modified duty cycle modulation is shown to produce well-formed phase-to-neutral voltages that have lower total harmonic distortion than the space-vector pulse width modulation and the duty cycle modulation. The space-vector-based solution and the duty cycle modulation, on the other hand, result in a better-quality line-to-line voltage and current waveform.

The voltage of the DC links in the modules of the series-connected H-bridge inverter are shown to fluctuate while they are under load. The fluctuation causes inaccuracies in the voltage production, which may result in a failure of the flux estimator in the controller. An extension for upper-level modulation schemes, which changes the switching instants of the inverter so that the output voltage meets the reference voltage accurately regardless of the DC link voltages, is proposed. The method is shown to reduce the error to a very low level when a sufficient switching frequency is used.

An appropriate way to organize the switching instants of the multilevel inverter is to make only one-level steps at a time. This causes restrictions on the dynamical features of the modulation schemes. The produced voltage vector cannot be rotated several tens of degrees in a single switching period without violating the above-mentioned one-level-step rule. The dynamical capabilities of multilevel inverters are analyzed in this doctoral thesis, and it is shown that the multilevel inverters are capable of operating even in dynamically demanding metal industry applications.

In addition to the discussion on modulation schemes, an overvoltage in multilevel converter drives caused by cable reflection is addressed. The voltage reflection phenomenon in drives with long feeder cables causes premature insulation deterioration and also affects the commonmode voltage, which is one of the main reasons for bearing currents. Bearing currents, on the other hand, cause fluting in the bearings, which results in premature bearing failure. The reflection phenomenon is traditionally prevented by filtering, but in this thesis, a modulationbased filterless method to mitigate the overvoltage in multilevel drives is proposed. Moreover, the mitigation method can be implemented as an extension for upper-level modulation schemes. The method exploits the oscillations caused by two consecutive voltage edges so that the sum of the oscillations results in a mitigated peak of the overvoltage. The applicability of the method is verified by simulations together with experiments with a full-scale prototype.

##### Kokoelmat

- Väitöskirjat [717]