Hygro-elasto-plastic behavior of planar orthotropic material
Erkkilä, Anna-Leena (2015-05-06)
Acta Universitatis Lappeenrantaensis
Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on
The mechanical and hygroscopic properties of paper and board are factors affecting the whole lifecycle of a product, including paper/board quality, production, converting, and material and energy savings. The progress of shrinkage profiles, loose edges of web, baggy web causing wrinkling and misregistration in printing are examples of factors affecting runnability and end product quality in the drying section and converting processes, where paper or board is treated as a moving web. The structural properties and internal stresses or plastic strain differences built up during production also cause the end-product defects related to distortion of the shape of the product such as sheet or box. The objective of this work was to construct a model capable of capturing the characteristic behavior of hygroscopic orthotropic material under moisture change, during different external in-plane stretch or stress conditions. Two independent experimental models were constructed: the elasto-plastic material model and the hygroexpansivity-shrinkage model. Both describe the structural properties of the sheet with a fiber orientation probability distribution, and both are functions of the dry solids content and fiber orientation anisotropy index. The anisotropy index, introduced in this work, simplifies the procedure of determining the constitutive parameters of the material model and the hygroexpansion coefficients in different in-plane directions of the orthotropic sheet. The mathematically consistent elasto-plastic material model and the dry solids content dependent hygroexpansivity have been constructed over the entire range from wet to dry. The presented elastoplastic and hygroexpansivity-shrinkage models can be used in an analytical approach to estimate the plastic strain and shrinkage in simple one-dimensional cases. For studies of the combined and more complicated effects of hygro-elasto-plastic behavior, both models were implemented in a finite element program for a numerical solution. The finite element approach also offered possibilities for studying different structural variations of orthotropic planar material, as well as local buckling behavior and internal stress situations of the sheet or web generated by local strain differences. A comparison of the simulation examples presented in this work to results published earlier confirms that the hygro-elasto-plastic model provides at least qualitatively reasonable estimates. The application potential of the hygro-elasto-plastic model is versatile, including several phenomena and defects appearing in the drying, converting and end-use conditions of the paper or board webs and products, or in other corresponding complex planar materials.
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