Co-creating services—conceptual clarification, forms and outcomes
Oertzen, Anna-Sophie; Odekerken-Schröder, Gaby; Brax, Saara A.; Mager, Birgit (2018)
Journal of Service Management
School of Business and Management
Design/methodology/approach - A focused literature review screened the articles published in five major service research journals to determine relevant contributions on the concept of co-creation of services. Then, a thematic analysis identifies the forms, themes and outcomes of co-creating services in the set of 80 qualifying articles.
Findings - The study reduces conceptual pluralism by establishing different forms of co-creating services and developing an explicit definition of co-creation in services. The authors develop an integrative framework that recognizes involvement, engagement and participation as prerequisites for co-creation. Relating to the different phases of the service process, the specific co-creation forms of co-ideation, co-valuation, co-design, co-testing and co-launching are classified as regenerative co-creation, while the specific co-creation forms of co-production and co-consumption are recognized as operative co-creation. Both beneficial and counterproductive outcomes of co-creation are identified and arranged into a typology.
Research limitations/implications - The integrative framework illustrates that service providers and customers are involved, engaged and participate in co-creating services, which manifests in specific forms of co-creation; they attain beneficial and counterproductive outcomes (personal, social, hedonic, cognitive, economic and pragmatic); and are influenced by a contextual multi-actor network.
Practical implications - Co-creation in services is actionable; the typology of outcomes suggests service managers ways to motivate customers and employees to participate in co-creating services.
Originality/value - This paper defines and establishes the conceptual forms of co-creating services and the identified outcomes, and develops an integrative framework of co-creation in services.
Oertzen, A-S., Odekerken-Schröder, G., Brax, S.A., Mager, B. (2018). Co-creating services—conceptual clarification, forms and outcomes. Journal of Service Management, Vol 29, Issue 4. p. 641-679. DOI: 10.1108/JOSM-03-2017-0067
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