Purity and mechanical strength of naturally frozen ice in wastewater basins
John, Miia; Suominen, Mikko; Sormunen, Otto-Ville; Hasan, Mehdi; Kurvinen, Emil; Kujala, Pentti; Mikkola, Aki; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta (2018-11-15)
Post-print / Final draft
School of Engineering Science
This research implemented in-situ measurements of the flexural and compressive strength of ice in natural ice-covered environments of a freshwater lake, two peatlands and three mining site basins, and compares the determined strength with analyzed impurities of the ice. The results showed that despite varying ice growth conditions and initial water constituents, it was possible to deduce an evident yet simple relationship between mean ice strength and ice impurities: the more impure the ice is, the lower the value of strength is Based on this exploration, it was concluded that separation efficiencies, i.e. the impurity removal ratio between basin water and ice, from 65% up to 90% can be achieved by natural freezing.
John, M., Suominen, M., Sormunen, O-V., Hasan, M., Kurvinen, E., Kujala, P., Mikkola, A., Louhi-Kultanen, M. (2018). Purity and mechanical strength of naturally frozen ice in wastewater basins. Water Research, Vol. 145, pp. 418-428. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.08.063
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