Optimization of the procedure for removing iron deposits on ceramic filter media
Ström, Riina (2005)
Aineistoon ei liity tiedostoja.
In this thesis, cleaning of ceramic filter media was studied. Mechanisms of fouling and dissolution of iron compounds, as well as methods for cleaning ceramic membranes fouled by iron deposits were studied in the literature part. Cleaning agents and different methods were closer examined in the experimental part of the thesis. Pyrite is found in the geologic strata. It is oxidized to form ferrous ions Fe(II) and ferric ions Fe(III). Fe(III) is further oxidized in the hydrolysis to form ferric hydroxide. Hematite and goethite, for instance, are naturally occurring iron oxidesand hydroxides. In contact with filter media, they can cause severe fouling, which common cleaning techniques competent enough to remove. Mechanisms for the dissolution of iron oxides include the ligand-promoted pathway and the proton-promoted pathway. The dissolution can also be reductive or non-reductive. The most efficient mechanism is the ligand-promoted reductive mechanism that comprises two stages: the induction period and the autocatalytic dissolution.Reducing agents(such as hydroquinone and hydroxylamine hydrochloride), chelating agents (such as EDTA) and organic acids are used for the removal of iron compounds. Oxalic acid is the most effective known cleaning agent for iron deposits. Since formulations are often more effective than organic acids, reducing agents or chelating agents alone, the citrate¿bicarbonate¿dithionite system among others is well studied in the literature. The cleaning is also enhanced with ultrasound and backpulsing.In the experimental part, oxalic acid and nitric acid were studied alone andin combinations. Also citric acid and ascorbic acid among other chemicals were tested. Soaking experiments, experiments with ultrasound and experiments for alternative methods to apply the cleaning solution on the filter samples were carried out. Permeability and ISO Brightness measurements were performed to examine the influence of the cleaning methods on the samples. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis of the solutions was carried out to determine the dissolved metals.