Comprehensive Study of Crystal Growth from Solution
Enqvist, Yuko (2004)
Aineistoon ei liity tiedostoja.
Acta Universitatis LappeenrantaensisURN:ISSN:1456-4491
Crystal growth is an essential phase in crystallization kinetics. The rate of crystal growth provides significant information for the design and control of crystallization processes; nevertheless, obtaining accurate growth rate data is still challenging due to a number of factors that prevail in crystal growth. In industrial crystallization, crystals are generally grown from multi-componentand multi-particle solutions under complicated hydrodynamic conditions; thus, it is crucial to increase the general understanding of the growth kinetics in these systems. The aim of this work is to develop a model of the crystal growth rate from solution. An extensive literature review of crystal growth focuses on themodelling of growth kinetics and thermodynamics, and new measuring techniques that have been introduced in the field of crystallization. The growth of a singlecrystal is investigated in binary and ternary systems. The binary system consists of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP, crystallizing solute) and water (solvent), and the ternary system includes KDP, water and an organic admixture. The studied admixtures, urea, ethanol and 1-propanol, are employed at relatively highconcentrations (of up to 5.0 molal). The influence of the admixtures on the solution thermodynamics is studied using the Pitzer activity coefficient model. Theprediction method of the ternary solubility in the studied systems is introduced and verified. The growth rate of the KDP (101) face in the studied systems aremeasured in the growth cell as a function of supersaturation, the admixture concentration, the solution velocity over a crystal and temperature. In addition, the surface morphology of the KDP (101) face is studied using ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The crystal growth rate in the ternary systems is modelled on the basis of the two-step growth model that contains the Maxwell-Stefan (MS) equations and a surface-reaction model. This model is used together with measuredcrystal growth rate data to develop a new method for the evaluation of the model parameters. The validation of the model is justified with experiments. The crystal growth rate in an imperfectly mixed suspension crystallizer is investigatedusing computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A solid-liquid suspension flow that includes multi-sized particles is described by the multi-fluid model as well as by a standard k-epsilon turbulence model and an interface momentum transfer model. The local crystal growth rate is determined from calculated flow information in a diffusion-controlled crystal growth regime. The calculated results are evaluated experimentally.
- Väitöskirjat