Development of a Ceramic Membrane Filtration Equipment and Its Applicability for Different Wastewaters
Laitinen, Niina (2001-10-14)
Acta Universitatis LappeenrantaensisURN:ISSN:1456-4491
Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on
In this thesis the membrane filtration equipment for plate type ceramic membranes was developed based on filtration results achieved with different kinds of wastewaters. The experiments were mainly made with pulp and board mill wastewaters, but some experiments were also made with a bore well water and a stone cutting mine wastewater. The ceramicmembranes used were alpha-alumina membranes with a pore size of 100 nm. Some ofthe membranes were coated with a gamma-alumina layer to reduce the membrane pore size to 10 nm, and some of them were modified with different metal oxides in order to change the surface properties of the membranes. The effects of operationparameters, such as cross-flow velocity, filtration pressure and backflushing on filtration performance were studied. The measured parameters were the permeateflux, the quality of the permeate, as well as the fouling tendency of the membrane. A dynamic membrane or a cake layer forming on top of the membrane was observed to decrease the flux and increase separa-tion of certain substances, especially at low cross-flow velocities. When the cross-flow velocities were increased the membrane properties became more important. Backflushing could also be used to decrease the thickness of the cake layer and thus it improved the permeate flux. However, backflushing can lead to a reduction of retentions in cases where the cake layer is improving them. The wastewater quality was important for the thickness of the dynamic membrane and the membrane pore size influenced the permeate flux. In general, the optimization of operation conditions is very important for the successful operation of a membrane filtration system. The filtration equipment with a reasonable range of operational conditions is necessary, especiallywhen different kinds of wastewaters are treated. This should be taken into account already in the development stage of a filtration equipment.
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