On the Reversed Brayton Cycle with High Speed Machinery
Backman, Jari (1996)
LTKK Tieteellisiä julkaisuja - Research papersURN:ISSN:0356-8210
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This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen theknowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery to the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Braytoncycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of the future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. The high speed machinery concept allows one to build an application with only one rotating shaft including all the major parts: the high speed motor, the compressor and the turbine wheel. The use of oil free bearings and high rotational speed outlines give several advantages compared to conventional machineries: light weight, compact structure, safe operation andhigher efficiency at a large operational region. There are always problems whentheory is applied to practice. The calibrations of pressure, temperature and humidity probes were made with care but still measurable errors were not negligible. Several different separators were examined and in all cases the content of the separated water was not exact. Due to the compact sizes and structures of the prototypes, the process measurement was slightly difficult. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical calculations. These experiments prove the operation of the process and lay a ground for the further development. The results of this work give very promising possibilities for the design of new, commercially competitive applications that use high speed machinery and the reversed Brayton cycle.
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