# Ultrafine grinding of FGD and phosphogypsum with an attrition bead mill and a jet mill : optimisation and modelling of grinding and mill comparison

##### Tuunila, Ritva (1997-12-22)

Väitöskirja

Tuunila, Ritva

22.12.1997

Lappeenranta University of Technology

LTKK Tieteellisiä julkaisuja - Research Papers

**Julkaisun pysyvä osoite on**

http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-214-756-1

#### Tiivistelmä

Fine powders of minerals are used commonly in the paper and paint industry, and for ceramics. Research for utilizing of different waste materials in these applications is environmentally important.

In this work, the ultrafine grinding of two waste gypsum materials, namely FGD (Flue Gas Desulphurisation) gypsum and phosphogypsum from a phosphoric acid plant, with the attrition bead mill and with the jet mill has been studied. The ' objective of this research was to test the suitability of the attrition bead mill and of the jet mill to produce gypsum powders with a particle size of a few microns. The grinding conditions were optimised by studying the influences of different operational grinding parameters on the grinding rate and on the energy consumption of the process in order to achieve a product fineness such as that required in the paper industry with as low energy consumption as possible.

Based on experimental results, the most influential parameters in the attrition grinding were found to be the bead size, the stirrer type, and the stirring speed. The best conditions, based on the product fineness and specific energy consumption of grinding, for the attrition grinding process is to grind the material with small grinding beads and a high rotational speed of the stirrer. Also, by using some suitable grinding additive, a finer product is achieved with a lower energy consumption. In jet mill grinding the most influential parameters were the feed rate, the volumetric flow rate of the grinding air, and the height of the internal classification tube. The optimised condition for the jet is to grind with a small feed rate and with a large rate of volumetric flow rate of grinding air when the inside tube is low. The finer product with a larger rate of production was achieved with the attrition bead mill than with the jet mill, thus the attrition grinding is better for the ultrafine grinding of gypsum than the jet grinding.

Finally the suitability of the population balance model for simulation of grinding processes has been studied with different S , B , and C functions. A new S function for the modelling of an attrition mill and a new C function for the modelling of a jet mill were developed. The suitability of the selected models with the developed grinding functions was tested by curve fitting the particle size distributions of the grinding products and then comparing the fitted size distributions to the measured particle sizes. According to the simulation results, the models are suitable for the estimation and simulation of the studied grinding processes.

In this work, the ultrafine grinding of two waste gypsum materials, namely FGD (Flue Gas Desulphurisation) gypsum and phosphogypsum from a phosphoric acid plant, with the attrition bead mill and with the jet mill has been studied. The ' objective of this research was to test the suitability of the attrition bead mill and of the jet mill to produce gypsum powders with a particle size of a few microns. The grinding conditions were optimised by studying the influences of different operational grinding parameters on the grinding rate and on the energy consumption of the process in order to achieve a product fineness such as that required in the paper industry with as low energy consumption as possible.

Based on experimental results, the most influential parameters in the attrition grinding were found to be the bead size, the stirrer type, and the stirring speed. The best conditions, based on the product fineness and specific energy consumption of grinding, for the attrition grinding process is to grind the material with small grinding beads and a high rotational speed of the stirrer. Also, by using some suitable grinding additive, a finer product is achieved with a lower energy consumption. In jet mill grinding the most influential parameters were the feed rate, the volumetric flow rate of the grinding air, and the height of the internal classification tube. The optimised condition for the jet is to grind with a small feed rate and with a large rate of volumetric flow rate of grinding air when the inside tube is low. The finer product with a larger rate of production was achieved with the attrition bead mill than with the jet mill, thus the attrition grinding is better for the ultrafine grinding of gypsum than the jet grinding.

Finally the suitability of the population balance model for simulation of grinding processes has been studied with different S , B , and C functions. A new S function for the modelling of an attrition mill and a new C function for the modelling of a jet mill were developed. The suitability of the selected models with the developed grinding functions was tested by curve fitting the particle size distributions of the grinding products and then comparing the fitted size distributions to the measured particle sizes. According to the simulation results, the models are suitable for the estimation and simulation of the studied grinding processes.

##### Kokoelmat

- Väitöskirjat [872]